starches may create cancer risk.
Spina bifida in babies is linked with cornflakes and white bread
By Robert Matthews, Science Correspondent (Filed: 23/11/2003)
Pregnant women who eat sugary
or highly processed food such as white bread and cornflakes face double
the risk of having malformed babies, according to new research.
Here's the Medline abstract:
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):972-8.
BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes,
prepregnancy obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and intakes of sweets have been
associated with increased risks of neural tube defects (NTDs). The
interdependence of these factors suggests a common pathogenesis via altered
glycemic control and insulin demand.
Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Dec;76(6):1308-16
Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors.
Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr Department of Medicine and the General Clinical Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Natural selection
has had < 1% of hominid evolutionary time to eliminate the inevitable
maladaptations consequent to the profound transformation of the human
diet resulting from the inventions of agriculture and animal husbandry.
Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Jun;75(6):1057-61
Zinc homeostasis in Malawian children consuming a high-phytate, maize-based diet.
Manary MJ, Hotz C, Krebs NF, Gibson RS, Westcott JE, Broadhead RL, Hambidge KM Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis (MJM).
BACKGROUND: Zinc deficiency
in children is an important public health concern in the developing world,
and the consumption of predominantly cereal-based diets with a high
phytate content may contribute to the risk. The gastrointestinal tract
plays a central role in absorbing and conserving zinc, yet it has not
been carefully studied in such children.
Arterioscler Thromb 1991 Jul-Aug;11(4):1059-67
Will a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet lower plasma lipids and lipoproteins without producing hypertriglyceridemia?
Ullmann D, Connor WE, Hatcher LF, Connor SL, Flavell DP. Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201-3098.
A sudden increase in dietary carbohydrate invariably increases the plasma levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that dietary carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia need not occur. In the first study we fed gradually increasing amounts of carbohydrate and gradually decreasing amounts of fat to eight subjects. The usual American diet (40% fat, 45% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was followed in sequence by four diets in a phased regimen, the carbohydrate increasing by 5% of total calories and the fat content decreasing by 5% for each dietary period. In the last dietary period (phase 4), 20% of the energy was in the form of fat and 65% in the form of carbohydrates; the cholesterol content was 100 mg/day. Throughout the study, plasma triglyceride and VLDL triglyceride levels did not change significantly. The plasma total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were greatly reduced, by 15% and 22%, respectively (p = 0.004). Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels decreased concomitantly. In the second study, after a washout period six of the subjects were initially fed the phase 4 high-carbohydrate diet for a 10-day period. The plasma triglyceride concentration increased over baseline levels by 47%, and VLDL triglyceride levels increased by 73%. We conclude that although a sudden increase in dietary carbohydrate increases the plasma triglyceride level, patients gradually introduced to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet may achieve a significant reduction of plasma total and LDL cholesterol without developing carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia.
Metabolism 1983 Aug;32(8):750-3
Effect of high-carbohydrate-low-fat diets on plasma glucose, insulin and lipid responses in hypertriglyceridemic humans.
Liu GC, Coulston AM, Reaven GM.
Two levels of dietary carbohydrate (40% and 60% of calories) were incorporated into typical US diets and fed for 15 days each to eight patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting blood samples were drawn on days 13, 14, and 15 of each dietary period, and analyzed for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations, as well as for triglyceride and cholesterol content of the various lipoprotein classes. In addition, these same measurements were made before and for three hours after the noon meal on days 14 and 15. Fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG concentrations were significantly increased (P less than 0.005) on the low-fat-high-carbohydrate diet. In addition, integrated postprandial insulin, TG, and VLDL-TG responses to the noon meal were significantly (P less than 0.01-0.001) elevated on the low-fat-high-carbohydrate diet. No dietary-induced changes were noted in either the fasting or postprandial values of glucose cholesterol, chylomicron-TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, HDL2-cholesterol, or HDL3-cholesterol. These results indicate that low-fat-high-carbohydrate diets accentuate the metabolic risk factors for coronary artery disease that are already present in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia.
Am J Clin Nutr 1976 May;29(5):535-9
Postprandial plasma triglyceride and cholesterol responses to a low-fat meal.
Olefsky JM, Crapo P, Reaven GM.
Postprandial plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured after the consumption of a relatively low-fat (35% of calories) diet in 41 subjects. Plasma cholesterol levels did not change appreciably during the postprandial state. In 34 subjects a biphasic plasma TG response curve was noted, with an initial peak occurring 1 to 3 hr after feeding and a secondary TG peak 4 to 7 hr after the meal. The primary peak was greater than 90%, accounted for by chylomicrons, whereas the secondary peak represented very low-density lipoproteins (greater than 82%). Furthermore, the heights of the primary and secondary peaks were closely correlated to the fasting TG level (r = 0.61 and 0.72, respectively) indicating that the fasting TG concentration is an important determinant of the postprandial TG response. Because low-fat (high-carbohydrate) diets are known to raise fasting TG levels in patients who do not have fasting hyperchylomicronemia, and because relatively few patients have chylomicrons in the fasting state, these data suggest that such diets may lead to day long increases in plasma TG levels in the majority of subjects.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976 Apr;42(4):729-35
Induction of hypertriglyceridemia by a low-fat diet.
Ginsberg H, Olefsky JM, Kimmerling G, Crapo P, Reaven GM.
We have studied the effects of moderate dietary fat restriction on plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin response in 27 subjects. Compared with a control diet (45% fat, 40% carbohydrate [CHO], 15% protein) the low fat (higher CHO) diet (30% fat, 55% CHO, 15% protein) produced a 41% increase in fasting triglyceride level (155 +/- 17 to 219 +/- 23 mg%) with no change in fasting plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this increase in triglyceride levels; induced by the higher CHO content of the low fat diet, was seen in 26 out of 27 subjects. Postprandial triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels were also higher on the low fat (higher CHO) diet. Since hypertriglyceridemia is a significant risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease, and since our data indicate that the moderate increase in dietary CHO associated with a low fat diet will elevate plasma triglyceride levels, we believe that more caution is necessary before recommending the wide-spread use of low fat diets for heart disease prevention.
[NOTE: first of all, this study uses the intentionally deceptive "% calories as xxx" concept. Then it suggests that the only way to decrease fat intake is to increase carbohydrate (CHO) drastically; however, abandoning the cultural diet, which contains highly-excessive quantities of both proteins and carbohydrates, and adopting a fruit and vegetable-oriented diet, which is much closer to the diet of our ape-ancestors, will reduce both excess protein and excess CHO, in absolute quantities. The study does point out that excess starches will produce high serum triglycerides. Most excessive CHO's in cultural diets come from grains and grain products, and these are relatively recent human inventions that were most certainly not in our evolutionary diet - ljf]
Pathologe 1993 Sep;14(5):247-52
Solid, hard microparticles, such as starch granules, pollen, cellulose particles, fibres and crystals, whose diameters are well into the micrometre range, are incorporated regularly and in considerable numbers from the digestive tract. Motor factors play an important part in the paracellular penetration of the epithelial cell layer. From the subepithelial region the microparticles are transported away via lymph and blood vessels. They can be detected in body fluids using simple methods: only a few minutes after oral administration they can be found in the peripheral blood-stream. We observed their passage into urine, bile, cerebrospinal fluid, the alveolar lumen, the peritoneal cavity, breast milk, and transplacentally into the fetal blood-stream. Since persorbed microparticles can embolise small vessels, this touches on microangiological problems, especially in the region of the CNS. The long-term deposit of embolising microparticles which consist of potential allergens or contaminants, or which are carriers of contaminants, is of immunological and environmental-technical importance. Numerous ready-made foodstuffs contain large quantities of microparticles capable of persorption.
Med Hypotheses 1991 Jun;35(2):85-7
Persorption of raw starch: a cause of senile dementia?
Intact starch granules in food can pass through the intestinal wall and enter the circulation. They remain intact if they have not been cooked for long enough in the presence of water. Some of these granules embolise arterioles and capillaries. In most organs the collateral circulation suffices for continued function. In the brain, however, neurones may be lost. Over many decades the neuronal loss could be of clinical importance. To test this hypothesis, there is a need to examine brains for the presence of embolised starch granules. Examining tissues polariscopically clearly distinguishes starch granules from other objects of similar appearance.
[Safe use of microcrystalline cellulose in low-calorie foods]. [Article in German]
Seidemann J. The problems arising in using microcrystalline cellulose in the food industry are outlined. Like starch granules, microcrystalline cellulose is also persorbed by the human and animal organism. As long as the problem persists whether persorption is a normal, everyday process or a process which is detrimental in the long run, the statement that the use of greater amounts of microcrystalline cellulose for foods and pharmaceutical products is absolutely safe should be carefully examined.
Kitasato Arch Exp Med 1990 Apr;63(1):1-6
[The Herbst-Volkheimer effect]. [Article in German] Prokop O. Institut fur Gerichtliche Medizin des Bereichs Medizin (Charite) der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, DDR.
More than 150 years ago the foundations were laid for the so-called HERBST effect which was subsequently forgotten. In the sixties the phenomenon was rediscovered by VOLKHEIMER at the Charite Hospital in Berlin and then reviewed through many experiments and publications. What is meant by the HERBST effect? If an experimental animal or even human being is given a larger amount of maize starch or also biscuits or some other products containing starch, starch bodies can be detected rapidly in venous blood already after minutes or half an hour later and in the urine after one hour and later. The term "persorption" has been coined for this interesting phenomenon. It is indeed surprising that it has met with so little attention. As a matter of fact, it constitutes the basis for our understanding of peroral immunization and of allergies. In the same way, feeding of carbon particles results in their appearance and detection in blood, kidney and urine. The same result is obtained by the intake of diatoms and what is even more important with meat fibres. I hope you are aware of the implications. When Professor NAGAI stayed in Berlin, we tried to receive the phenomenon. Since only a few cell nuclei are necessary for "genetic fingerprinting" we thought that after intake of 200 or 400 g of raw meat the type of food eaten could be determined from the urinary sediment by means of the fingerprint method which would be of forensic significance. Therefore, we eat meat and raw liver and examined the urinary sediment..(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)